Review of high recovery concentrate management options
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Current methods of inland concentrate disposal include surface water discharge, deep-wellinjection and evaporation ponds. These methods are unsustainable and are limited by highcapital cost and non-ubiquitous applications. This paper gives an overview of potential alternativesand technologies available that can reduce the concentrate formed via reducing itsvolume or recycling. Potential alternatives explored have been electrodialysis, mechanicalevaporation, Vibratory Shear-Enhanced Process (VSEP) and Wind-Aided Intensification ofEvaporation. All technologies have potential for use in areas distant from the coast and havebetter performance than currents management techniques. This paper reviews multiple studiesthat have explored alternate technologies for concentrate disposal in terms of economicsand feasibility. Of the five case studies presented, VSEP shows promise as a secondarysystem of treatment via enhancing percentage recovery; higher permeate flux and loweroperational costs.
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