Acoustic Response of Reservoir Sandstones during Injection of Supercritical CO2
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We report experimental results for acoustic response measurements conducted during injection of supercritical carbon dioxide into a brine saturated sandstone plug. We measured P- and S-wave velocities (Vp, Vs) as a function of effective stress and CO2 saturation in a sandstone plug. We demonstrate that Gassmann's fluid substitution procedure matches the experimental results well for this sample. A 3.5% reduction of P-wave velocity after injection of two pore volumes of CO2 into brine-saturated sample was measured. We conclude that measurement of Vp can be used to estimate CO2 saturations in rock. In addition, x-ray computer tomography (CT) images were acquired at reservoir conditions with a resolution of 33 µm, which provided more detailed information about CO2 saturations and distributions in the rock. It is envisaged that these techniques (seismic and CT) can be combined in the future to enable a more holistic understanding of how fluid-fluid displacement processes are coupled with the acoustic response characteristics of the rock.
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