Acoustic Response of Brine Saturated Reservoir Rocks During Injection of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide
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Quantitative knowledge of the acoustic response of rock from an injection site on supercritical CO2 saturation is crucial for understanding the feasibility of time-lapse seismic monitoring of CO2 plume migration. Ultrasonic experiments were conducted on CO2 flooded sandstone core samples. The purposes of these laboratory tests were to investigate the effect of brine, liquid CO2, supercritical CO2 (scCO2), and mixture of scCO2 with brine, on the acoustic response of sandstones to provide an information of the sensitivity of time-lapse seismic (4D) imaging of the CO2 plume. Samples were tested in a triaxial pressure cell at room and elevated temperatures; cell was equipped with core flooding equipment, and has an innovative arrangement of ultrasound transducers. The sandstone samples varied in porosities between 14 and 23% and permeabilities between 4 mD and 2.7 D. Independent control of confining and pore pressures, combined with temperature control allowed to simulate reservoir conditions insitu. Pore pressures and temperatures were varied from 4 MPa to 10 MPa, and 23°C to 45°C respectively to cover both vapour and supercritical regions of CO2 phase diagram. Both compressional, P and shear waves, S were acquired at a range of effective pressures up to 60 MPa. An applicability of implementation of fluid substitution using Gassmann's theory for has been proved in the experiments. Finally, more than 10% of decreasing of the compressional velocity during injection of scCO2 into initially brine saturated samples was observed for some samples.
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