Climate change and weather related impacts
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© 2012, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In order to address the contributions of GNSS to monitor climate change caused by increase in temperature, a distinction between weather and climate on one hand, and climate variability and climate change on the other hand is essential. Burroughs points out that weather is what is happening to the atmosphere at any given time (i.e., what one gets) whereas climate is what would be expected to occur at any given time of the year based on statistics built up over many years (i.e., what one expects). From these definitions, it follows that changes in the climate constitute shifts in meteorological conditions lasting a few years or longer, and may involve a single parameter, e.g., temperature or rainfall, but usually accompany more shift in weather patterns that might result in a shift to, say, colder, wetter, cloudier and windier conditions. If meteorological observations, e.g., of temperature are taken over time, a series of its annual averages could be developed. This series would indicate that over the period of measurements the average value remains effectively constant but fluctuates considerably from observation to observation. This fluctuation about the mean is a measure of climate variability. Now, if a linear or cyclic trend is fitted onto the variability, the effect of climate change could be analysed.
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Awange, Joseph (2012)© 2012, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. In order to address the contributions of GNSS to monitor climate change caused by increase in temperature, a distinction between weather and climate on one hand, and climate ...
Awange, Joseph; Kyalo Kiema, J. (2013)© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013. In order to fully appreciate the contribution of geoinformatics in monitoring climate change caused by increase in temperature, a distinction between weather and climate, on one ...
Transport system management under extreme weather risks: Views to project appraisal, asset value protection and risk-aware system managementLeviakangas, Pekka; Michaelides, S. (2014)Until recently, research on potential economic impacts of climate change and extreme weather events on transport infrastructure was scarce, but currently this area is rapidly expanding. Indeed, there is a growing international ...