Effects of nitrogen-, boron-, and phosphorus-doping or codoping on metal-free graphene catalysis
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© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Abstract Graphene-based materials have been demonstrated as excellent alternatives to traditional metal-based catalysts in environmental remediation. The metal-free nature of the nanocarbons can completely prevent toxic metal leaching and the associated secondary contamination. In this study, nitrogen doped graphene (NG) at a doping level of 6.54 at.% was prepared at mild conditions. Moreover, B- and P-doping or codoping with N in graphene were also achieved by a simple route. The modified graphene can efficiently activate peroxymonosulfate (PMS) to produce sulfate radicals to oxidize phenol solutions. Kinetic studies indicated that initial phenol concentration, PMS dosage, and temperature presented significant influences on the degradation rates. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis provided further insights into the evolution of active radicals during the activation of PMS and SO<inf>4</inf><sup>•-</sup> was believed to be the primary radicals in the oxidation reactions. This study demonstrated a metal-free material for green catalysis in environmental remediation.
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