Comparison of IPV to tOPV week 39 boost of primary OPV vaccination in Indian infants: an open labelled randomized controlled trial
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© 2017 The Authors Background The final endgame strategy of global polio eradication initiative includes switching from trivalent oral poliovirus vaccines (tOPV) to bivalent oral polio vaccine (bOPV), and introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). This study compares IPV with tOPV week 39 boost in Indian infants. Methods Starting 28 March 2012, we enrolled 372 Indian infant-mother pairs from Kolkata, India in an open-label, block-randomized, controlled trial comparing a 39 week tOPV to an IPV boost among infants immunized with three doses of tOPV. The primary outcome was mucosal immunity to poliovirus as measured by fecal polio virus shedding after OPV challenge. The secondary outcome was humoral response as defined by > 1:8 titers for neutralizing antibodies at week 40. Seroconversion was measured by change in level of antibody titers from week 18 to week 40. The analyses were performed by both intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) comparing the occurrences of outcomes between the arms of the study. Findings Both the study arms provided equivalent mucosal immunity at 52 weeks with a total shedding prevalence of 28%. Vaccination with IPV resulted in significantly higher seroconversion rates for Polio type 2 (p = 0.03) and Polio type 3 (p < 0.01). Conclusions This study indicates that an IPV boost at week 39 is equivalent to tOPV in intestinal immunity, and provides higher seroconversion compared to tOPV. The major limitation of the study was the additional OPV doses receive by infants during pulse polio immunization resulted in additional mucosal boosting, diminishing the impact of IPV or tOPV boost at week 39. However, IPV for OPV boost should prove to be a step forward in the global polio eradication initiative to reduce the problem of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV).
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