Systematic, active surveillance for Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in camels in Egypt
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© The Author(s) 2017. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes severe human infections and dromedary camels are considered an intermediary host. The dynamics of natural infection in camels are not well understood. Through systematic surveillance in Egypt, nasal, rectal, milk, urine and serum samples were collected from camels between June 2014 and February 2016. Locations included quarantines, markets, abattoirs, free-roaming herds and farmed breeding herds. The overall seroprevalence was 71% and RNA detection rate was 15%. Imported camels had higher seroprevalence (90% vs 61%) and higher RT-PCR detection rates (21% vs 12%) than locally raised camels. Juveniles had lower seroprevalence than adults (37% vs 82%) but similar RT-PCR detection rates (16% vs 15%). An outbreak in a breeding herd, showed that antibodies rapidly wane, that camels become re-infected, and that outbreaks in a herd are sustained for an extended time. Maternal antibodies titers were very low in calves regardless of the antibody titers of the mothers. Our results support the hypothesis that camels are a reservoir for MERS-CoV and that camel trade is an important route of introducing the virus into importing countries. Findings related to waning antibodies and re-infection have implications for camel vaccine development, disease management and zoonotic threat.
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Seroepidemiology for MERS coronavirus using microneutralisation and pseudoparticle virus neutralisation assays reveal a high prevalence of antibody in dromedary camels in Egypt, june 2013Perera, R.; Wang, P.; Gomaa, M.; El-Shesheny, R.; Kandeil, A.; Bagato, O.; Siu, L.; Shehata, M.; Kayed, A.; Moatasim, Y.; Li, M.; Poon, L.; Guan, Y.; Webby, R.; Ali, Mohammed; Peiris, J.; Kayali, G. (2013)We describe a novel spike pseudoparticle neutralisation assay (ppNT) for seroepidemiological studies on Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERSCoV) and apply this assay together with conventional microneutralisation ...
Cross-sectional surveillance of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in dromedary camels and other mammals in Egypt, August 2015 to January 2016Ali, Mohammed; El-Shesheny, R.; Kandeil, A.; Shehata, M.; Elsokary, B.; Gomaa, M.; Hassan, N.; El Sayed, A.; El-Taweel, A.; Sobhy, H.; Fasina, F.; Dauphin, G.; El Masry, I.; Wolde, A.; Daszak, P.; Miller, M.; VonDobschuetz, S.; Gardner, E.; Morzaria, S.; Lubroth, J.; Makonnen, Y. (2017)© 2017, European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Egypt to determine the prevalence of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) ...
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