Immune responses to killed reassorted influenza virus supplemented with natural adjuvants
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© 2017 Akadémiai Kiado, Budapest. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of a supplemented killed influenza virus (V) by Echinacea purpurea (E) and Nigella sativa (N) extracts and effect of changing the route of immunization from intramuscular (IM) to intraperitoneal (IP). At the 2 nd -, 3 rd - and 4th-week post-IM immunizations (WPIMI), the supplemented V with N (VN) induced the most significant IgM response unlike N alone. At the 2 nd WPIMI, V or VN induced the highest significant IgG levels. At the 2 nd -week post-IP immunization (WPIPI), E and VN induced the most significant IgG levels. Both at the 3 rd and 4 th WPIMI or WPIPI, various treatments induced significant increases in IgG. At the 4 th WPIMI, E, V, and V with E (VE) induced significant increases in the CD4+ thymocytes while all IP treatments caused significant increase in their counts. V and VN induced the most significant IM induction of CD8+ thymocytes while their best IP stimulation was induced by N, VE, and VN. At the 4th WPIMI, various treatments caused significant increases in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN) CD4+, CD8+ counts. WPIPI with V or VE caused significant increases in both the CD4+- and CD8+ MLN cells, whereas VN significantly induced CD8+ MLN cells only. WPIPI with various treatments caused significant increases in the B-cell counts and the peak was obtained by VN.
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