The global burden of cholera
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Objective To estimate the global burden of cholera using population-based incidence data and reports. Methods Countries with a recent history of cholera were classifed as endemic or non-endemic, depending on whether they had reported cholera cases in at least three of the fve most recent years. The percentages of the population in each country that lacked access to improved sanitation were used to compute the populations at risk for cholera, and incidence rates from published studies were applied to groups of countries to estimate the annual number of cholera cases in endemic countries. The estimates of cholera cases in non-endemic countries were based on the average numbers of cases reported from 2000 to 2008. Literature-based estimates of cholera case-fatality rates (CFRs) were used to compute the variance-weighted average cholera CFRs for estimating the number of cholera deaths. Findings About 1.4 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.8 million cholera cas s occur annually in such countries (uncertainty range: 1.4-4.3) and an estimated 87 000 cholera cases occur in non-endemic countries. The incidence is estimatedto be greatest in children less than 5 years of age. Every year about 91 000 people (uncertainty range: 28 000 to 142 000) die of cholera in endemic countries and 2500 people die of the disease in non-endemic countries. Conclusion The global burden of cholera, as determined through a systematic review with clearly stated assumptions, is high. The fndings of this study provide a contemporary basis for planning public health interventions to control cholera.
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Ali, Mohammed; Nelson, A.; Lopez, A.; Sack, D. (2015)© 2015 Ali et al. Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and ...
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Mass Vaccination with a New, Less Expensive Oral Cholera Vaccine Using Public Health Infrastructure in India: The Odisha ModelKar, S.; Sah, B.; Patnaik, B.; Kim, Y.; Kerketta, A.; Shin, S.; Rath, S.; Ali, Mohammed; Mogasale, V.; Khuntia, H.; Bhattachan, A.; You, Y.; Puri, M.; Lopez, A.; Maskery, B.; Nair, G.; Clemens, J.; Wierzba, T. (2014)Introduction: The substantial morbidity and mortality associated with recent cholera outbreaks in Haiti and Zimbabwe, as well as with cholera endemicity in countries throughout Asia and Africa, make a compelling case for ...