Multiple attenuation via wavefield transformations.
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Seismic multiples are a serious hindrance to hydrocarbon exploration in Australia. In particular, water bottom multiples can be very difficult to attenuate. This is because there often exists a strongly reflective sea floor which gives multiples large amplitudes when compared with the primary events they overlay, and secondly, because of a widely occurring velocity inversion, which seriously reduces the effectiveness of a very important class of multiple attenuation techniques.Multiple attenuation techniques can be classified according to the characteristic of the data which is used to discriminate against the multiples in conjunction with the operation behind the demultiple process. Common multiple attenuation processes include FK demultiple, Radon Demultiple, predictive deconvolution, wave equation based demultiple procedures and the family of techniques which come under the umbrella of Surface Multiple Attenuation (SMA). All of these techniques, given the right conditions, can be very effective. They also vary in price from very cheap (FK demultiple) through to expensive (wave equation based demultiple procedures).However, despite these procedures, and fifty odd years of research, there is no effective general solution to multiple problems off the coast of Western Australia and indeed in many regions around the world.Two new wavefield transformations, Multiple MoveOut (MMO) and IsoStretch Radial Trace (ISR), have been developed in this research to precondition data prior to the removal of surface related multiples by existing techniques. These form the basis of a new multiple attenuating procedure.MMO shifts the data so that the water bottom primary event is flattened and the simple water bottom multiples are also flat and periodic. Water bottom peg leg multiples are made approximately periodic.To solve the stretch problem introduced by the MMO transform, ISR interpolates oblique traces of constant stretch, which also map constant shot emergence angles. The water bottom primary and multiple events form a stationary time series after MMO and ISR. They are then amenable to removal by autoconvolution and predictive deconvolution.The results of the new procedure are demonstrated on two case studies from offshore Western Australia. It is shown to be more effective at removing both simple and peg leg water bottom multiples than traditional techniques. Finally, it is an inexpensive procedure, which does not require velocity analysis prior to its application.
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