Restricted spanning trees and graph partitioning.
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1999Supervisor
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A network is a system that involves movement or flow of some commodities such as goods and services. In fact any structure that is in the form of a system of components some of which interact can be considered as a network. In network design the problem is often to construct economical and reliable networks which satisfy certain requirements and which are optimal according to some criterion such as cost, output or performance. Graph theory is useful when the requirements of the network can be expressed in terms of graph parameters, usually as bounds. Some of the graph parameters that have been considered include: degree; distance; diameter; and connectivity. Problems with these parameter restrictions are usually from a class of NPcomplete problems with instances that require exponential computer time to solve by available algorithms.The major focus of this thesis is to develop fast and efficient heuristics for some of these NPcomplete problems. The two main topics analysed are Restricted Spanning Trees and Graph Partitioning. The aim of the Restricted Spanning Trees section is to construct the most efficient spanning tree (connected network) subject to various degree constraints. These degree constraints imposed are usually in the form of an upper bound. The upper bound represents the maximum number of connections allowed on a particular vertex. The Graph Partitioning section considers the problem of clustering vertices of the graph into sets such that the overall cost of the edges in the different sets is minimised.Chapter 1 provides the notation and terminology used throughout the thesis and a review and summary of the thesis.A literature review of related work that has been carried out to date is presented in Chapter 2. Some of the more promising results are discussed. The first part of the chapter surveys work related to the Restricted Spanning Tree problem. Analysis of both exact and heuristic methods is given. The second part of Chapter 2 provides a survey of the Graph Partitioning problem. We discuss the many different approaches that have been proposed to solve this problem. The quality of computational results achieved is discussed.Chapter 3 considers the Degree Constraint Minimum Weight Spanning Tree problem. This problem arises in networks where a given terminal is only allowed connections to a maximum number of specified terminals. We consider a number of cases including: same degree constraint on each vertex; different degree constraint on some vertices; and when the degree constraint is only on one or two vertices. A number of heuristics are developed and implemented and compared against an exact Branch and Cut algorithm. Our computational results demonstrated the value of our better performing heuristics.Chapter 4 considers the complexity of the (1,k)tree problem. This problem is defined m given a graph G with maximum degree k find a spanning tree T with all vertices having degree 1 or k. Analysis is done on graphs with maximum degree 3, 4 and 5. Results establishing that the (1,3)tree and (1, 4)tree problems are NPcomplete are presented. Further consideration is also given to the complexity of spanning trees with degree from the set { 1, 3, 5}. Analysis is also carried out on the number of degree one vertices in the (1, k)tree. Presentation of heuristic procedures to solve this NPcomplete problem concludes the chapter.Chapter 5 is devoted to the Graph Partitioning problem. A number of heuristics are presented and extensive computational work carried out. Computational findings support the usefulness of the heuristic methods both in terms of quality and time.We conclude this thesis by detailing some future work that can be carried out.
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