Active surveillance of avian influenza viruses in Egyptian poultry, 2015
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© 2016, World Health Organization. STI. All rights reserved. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses in Egyptian poultry has been conducted since 2009. Up to 2011, all the detected viruses were H5N1, and the overall prevalence was 5%. In 2011, H9N2 viruses were observed to be co-circulating and co-infecting the same hosts as H5N1 viruses. Since then, the detection rate has increased to around 10%. In the 2014–2015 winter season, H5N1 was circulating heavily in poultry flocks and caused an unprecedented number of human infections. In contrast, surveillance in the last quarter of 2015 indicated a near absence of H5N1 in Egyptian poultry. Surveillance for avian influenza viruses must continue in Egypt to monitor further developments in H5N1 circulation in poultry.
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Gomaa, M.; Kandeil, A.; Kayed, A.; Elabd, M.; Zaki, S.; Zeid, D.; El Rifay, A.; Mousa, A.; Farag, M.; McKenzie, P.; Webby, R.; Ali, Mohammed; Kayali, G. (2016)© 2016 Gomaa et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original ...
Antigenic diversity and cross-reactivity of avian influenza H5N1 viruses in Egypt between 2006 and 2011El-Shesheny, R.; Kayali, G.; Kandeil, A.; Cai, Z.; Barakat, A.; Ghanim, H.; Ali, Mohammed (2012)Influenza epidemics are a major health concern worldwide. Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses in Egypt have been subject to rapid genetic and antigenic changes since the first outbreak in February 2006 ...
Kayali, G.; Kandeil, A.; El-Shesheny, R.; Kayed, A.; Maatouq, A.; Cai, Z.; McKenzie, P.; Webby, R.; Refaey, S.; Kandeel, A.; Ali, Mohammed (2016)© 2016, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved. In Egypt, avian influenza A subtype H5N1 and H9N2 viruses are enzootic in poultry. The control plan devised by veterinary authorities in Egypt ...