Impact of Vi vaccination on spatial patterns of typhoid fever in the slums of Kolkata, India
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A mass typhoid Vi vaccination campaign was carried out among approximately 60,000 slum residents of Kolkata, India. This study evaluated the impact of the campaign on spatial patterns of typhoid fever. Eighty contiguous residential groups of households in the study area were randomized to receive either a single dose of the Vi polysaccharide vaccine or a single dose of the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine as the control agent. Persons aged two years and older were eligible to receive the vaccine. Vaccine protection against typhoid fever was monitored for two years after vaccination at both outpatient and inpatient facilities serving the study population. Geographic analytic and mapping tools were used in the analysis. Spatial randomness of the disease was observed during the pre-vaccination period, which turned into a significant pattern after vaccination. The high-risk areas for typhoid were observed in the area dominated by the control clusters, and the low-risk areas were in the area dominated by the Vi clusters. Furthermore, the control clusters su rrounded by the Vi clusters were low risk for typhoid fever. The results demonstrated the ability of mass vaccination to change the spatial patterns of disease through the creation of spatial barriers to transmission of the disease. Understanding and mapping the disease risk could be useful for designing a community-based vaccination strategy to control disease. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
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