Virtual image sensors to track human activity in a smart house
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With the advancement of computer technology, demand for more accurate and intelligent monitoring systems has also risen. The use of computer vision and video analysis range from industrial inspection to surveillance. Object detection and segmentation are the first and fundamental task in the analysis of dynamic scenes. Traditionally, this detection and segmentation are typically done through temporal differencing or statistical modelling methods. One of the most widely used background modeling and segmentation algorithms is the Mixture of Gaussians method developed by Stauffer and Grimson (1999). During the past decade many such algorithms have been developed ranging from parametric to non-parametric algorithms. Many of them utilise pixel intensities to model the background, but some use texture properties such as Local Binary Patterns. These algorithms function quite well under normal environmental conditions and each has its own set of advantages and short comings. However, there are two drawbacks in common. The first is that of the stationary object problem; when moving objects become stationary, they get merged into the background. The second problem is that of light changes; when rapid illumination changes occur in the environment, these background modelling algorithms produce large areas of false positives.These algorithms are capable of adapting to the change, however, the quality of the segmentation is very poor during the adaptation phase. In this thesis, a framework to suppress these false positives is introduced. Image properties such as edges and textures are utilised to reduce the amount of false positives during adaptation phase. The framework is built on the idea of sequential pattern recognition. In any background modelling algorithm, the importance of multiple image features as well as different spatial scales cannot be overlooked. Failure to focus attention on these two factors will result in difficulty to detect and reduce false alarms caused by rapid light change and other conditions. The use of edge features in false alarm suppression is also explored. Edges are somewhat more resistant to environmental changes in video scenes. The assumption here is that regardless of environmental changes, such as that of illumination change, the edges of the objects should remain the same. The edge based approach is tested on several videos containing rapid light changes and shows promising results. Texture is then used to analyse video images and remove false alarm regions. Texture gradient approach and Laws Texture Energy Measures are used to find and remove false positives. It is found that Laws Texture Energy Measure performs better than the gradient approach. The results of using edges, texture and different combination of the two in false positive suppression are also presented in this work. This false positive suppression framework is applied to a smart house senario that uses cameras to model ”virtual sensors” to detect interactions of occupants with devices. Results show the accuracy of virtual sensors compared with the ground truth is improved.
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