Influence of rock mass properties on tunnel inflow using hydromechanical numerical study
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One of the primary geotechnical problems encountered during tunnel construction involves the inflow of groundwater into the tunnel. Heavy inflows make tunnel construction difficult and result in higher costs and delays in construction period. Therefore, it is essential to estimate the volume and rate of water inflow that is likely to appear in the tunnel. In this research, water inflow to the tunnel was calculated using numerical hydromechanical analysis. Effect of rock mass properties including fracture characteristics (normal and shear stiffness, hydraulic aperture, dilation angle, and fracture nonlinear behavior) on inflow was studied using a two-dimensional distinct element method. Results show that fracture properties play important role in inflow to the tunnel and must be considered in prediction of inflow to the tunnel. Based on numerical analysis results, inflow of groundwater into the tunnel increases with the increasing of normal and shear stiffness, dilation angle, and hydraulic aperture of rock mass fractures. The measured inflow with considering nonlinear fracture behavior was more than the calculated inflow with linear constitutive behavior.
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