The Effects of Bread-Making Process Factors on Australian Sweet Lupin-Wheat Bread Quality Characteristics
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Factorial experimental design was used to investigate the effects of: sponge proofing time (min), sponge and dough mixing time (min), final proofing time (min), final proofing temperature (°C) and baking time (min) on Australian sweet lupin-wheat bread physical attributes. Factorial models show that bread specific volume was positively associated with sponge and dough mixing time (P = 0.01) and baking time (P = 0.02). Crumb area was positively associated (P = 0.01) with sponge and dough mixing time. Final proofing time positively influenced cell wall thickness (P < 0.01) and cell diameter (P < 0.01) but negatively affected number of cells (P < 0.01). Cell diameter was positively associated with baking time (P = 0.04), whilst number of cells was negatively influenced by sponge and dough mixing time (P = 0.01). Instrumental springiness was positively associated with sponge and dough mixing time (P = 0.02). Sponge and dough mixing and baking times were the two most significant process parameters affecting the bread physical quality and hence should be optimised.
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