A case study of interior low-frequency noise from box-shaped bridge girders induced by running trains: Its mechanism, prediction and countermeasures
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A side effect of high-speed railway and urban rail transit systems is the associated vibration and noise. Since the use of concrete viaducts is predominant in railway construction due to scarce land resources, low-frequency (20-200. Hz) structure-radiated noise from concrete bridges is a principal concern. Although it is the most commonly used bridge type, the mechanism of noise emission from box-shaped bridge girders when subjected to impact forces from moving trains, which sounds like beating a drum, has not been well studied. In this study, a field measurement was first made on a simply-supported box-shaped bridge to record the acceleration of the slabs and the associated sound pressures induced by running trains. These data indicated that a significant beat-wave noise occurred in the box-shaped cavity when the train speed was around 340. km/h, which arose from the interference between two sound waves of 75.0. Hz and 78.8. Hz. The noise leakage from the bridge expansion joint was serious and resulted in obvious noise pollution near the bridge once the beat-wave noise was generated in the cavity. The dominant frequency of the interior noise at 75.0. Hz was confirmed from the spectrum of the data and the modal analysis results, and originated from the peak vibration of the top slab due to resonance and the first-order vertical acoustic mode, which led to cavity resonance, amplifying the corresponding noise. The three-dimensional acoustic modes and local vibration modes of the slab were calculated by using the finite element method. A simplified vehicle-track-bridge coupling vibration model was then developed to calculate the wheel-rail interaction force in a frequency range of 20-200. Hz. Numerical simulations using the boundary element method confirmed the cavity resonance effect and the numerical results agreed well with the data. Based on the calibrated numerical model, three noise reduction measures, i.e., adding a horizontal baffle in the interior cavity, narrowing the width of top slab by reducing the inclination angle of the webs, and using a softer fastener on the track, were found to be effective and practical for reducing the noise generated by high-speed trains.
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