Electromechanical finite element modelling for dynamic analysis of a cantilevered piezoelectric energy harvester with tip mass offset under base excitations
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A new electromechanical finite element modelling of a vibration power harvester and its validation with experimental studies are presented in this paper. The new contributions for modelling the electromechanical finite element piezoelectric unimorph beam with tip mass offset under base excitation encompass five major solution techniques. These include the electromechanical discretization, kinematic equations, coupled field equations, Lagrangian electromechanical dynamic equations, and orthonormalised global matrix and scalar forms of electromechanical finite element dynamic equations. Such techniques have not been rigorously modelled previously by other researchers. There are also benefits to presenting the numerical techniques proposed in this paper. First, the proposed numerical techniques can be used for Q1 applications in many different geometrical models, including MEMS power harvesting devices. Second, applying tip mass offset located after the end of the piezoelectric beam length can result in a very practical design, which avoids direct contact with piezoelectric material because of its brittle nature.Since the surfaces of actual piezoelectric material are covered evenly with thin conducting electrodes for generating single voltage, we introduce the new electromechanical discretization, consisting of the mechanical and electrical discretised elements. Moreover, the reduced electromechanical finite element dynamic equations can be further formulated to obtain the series form of new multimode electromechanical frequency response functions (FRFs) of the displacement, velocity, voltage, current, and power, including optimal power harvesting. The normalized numerical strain node and eigenmode shapes are also further formulated using numerical discretization. Finally, the parametric numerical case studies of the piezoelectric unimorph beam under a resistive shunt circuit show good agreement with the experimental studies.
This is an author-created, un-copy edited version of an article accepted for publication in Smart Materials and Structures. The publisher is not responsible for any errors or omissions in this version of the manuscript or any version derived from it. The Version of Record is available online at http://doi.org/10.1088/0964-1726/23/9/095037
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