Effectors as tools in disease resistance breeding against biotrophic, hemibiotrophic, and necrotrophic plant pathogens
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One of most important challenges in plant breeding is improving resistance to the plethora of pathogens that threaten our crops. The ever-growing world population, changing pathogen populations, and fungicide resistance issues have increased the urgency of this task. In addition to a vital inflow of novel resistance sources into breeding programs, the functional characterization and deployment of resistance also needs improvement. Therefore, plant breeders need to adopt new strategies and techniques. In modern resistance breeding, effectors are emerging as tools to accelerate and improve the identification, functional characterization, and deployment of resistance genes. Since genome-wide catalogues of effectors have become available for various pathogens, including biotrophs as well as necrotrophs, effector-assisted breeding has been shown to be successful for various crops. “Effectoromics” has contributed to classical resistance breeding as well as for genetically modified approaches. Here, we present an overview of how effector-assisted breeding and deployment is being exploited for various pathosystems.
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Tan, Kar-Chun; Phan, Huyen Phan; Rybak, K.; John, E.; Chooi, Y.; Solomon, P.; Oliver, Richard (2015)Necrotrophic diseases of wheat cause major losses in most wheat growing areas of world. Tan spot (caused by Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) and septoria nodorum blotch (SNB; Parastagonospora nodorum) have been shown to ...
Absence of detectable yield penalty associated with insensitivity to Pleosporales necrotrophic effectors in wheat grown in the West Australian wheat beltOliver, Richard; Lichtenzveig, Judith; Tan, Kar-Chun; Waters, O.; Rybak, K.; Lawrence, J.; Friesen, T.; Burgess, P. (2014)Genetic disease resistance is widely assumed, and occasionally proven, to cause host yield or fitness penalties due to inappropriate activation of defence response mechanisms or diversion of resources to surplus preformed ...
Sensitivity to three Parastagonospora nodorum necrotrophic effectors in current Australian wheat cultivars and the presence of further fungal effectorsTan, Kar-Chun; Waters, O.; Rybak, K.; Antoni, E.; Furuki, E.; Oliver, Richard (2013)Parastagonospora nodorum is a major fungal pathogen of wheat in Australia causing septoria nodorum blotch (SNB). P. nodorum virulence is quantitative and depends to a large extent on multiple effector-host sensitivity ...