Cancer Survival and Excess Mortality Estimates among Adolescents and Young Adults in Western Australia, 1982-2004: A Population-Based Study
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Background: Data are limited on cancer outcomes in adolescents and young adults. Methods: Based on data from the Western Australian Data Linkage System, this study modelled survival and excess mortality in all adolescents and young adults aged 15-39 years in Western Australia who had a diagnosis of cancer in the period 1982-2004. Relative survival and excess all-cause mortality for all cancers combined and for principal tumour subgroups were estimated, using the Ederer II method and generalised linear Poisson modelling, respectively. Results: A cancer diagnosis in adolescents and young adults conferred substantial survival decrement. However, overall outcomes improved over calendar period (excess mortality hazard ratio [HR], latest versus earliest diagnostic period: 0.52, trend <0.0001). Case fatality varied according to age group (HR, oldest versus youngest: 1.38, trend <0.0001), sex (HR, female versus male: 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-0.71), ethnicity (HR, Aboriginal versus others: 1.47, CI 1.23-1.76), geographical area (HR, rural/remote versus urban: 1.13, CI 1.04-1.23) and residential socioeconomic status (HR, lowest versus highest quartile: 1.14, trend <0.05). Tumour subgroups differed substantially in frequency according to age group and sex, and were critical outcome determinants. Conclusions: Marked progressive calendar-time improvement in overall outcomes was evident. Further research is required to disentangle the contributions of tumour biology and health service factors to outcome disparities between ethno-demographic, geographic and socioeconomic subgroups of adolescents and young adults with cancer. © 2013 Haggar et al.
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