Learning and detecting activities from movement trajectories using the hierarchical hidden Markov model
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Directly modelling the inherent hierarchy and shared structures of human behaviours, we present an application of the hierarchical hidden Markov model (HHMM) for the problem of activity recognition. We argue that to robustly model and recognize complex human activities, it is crucial to exploit both the natural hierarchical decomposition and shared semantics embedded in the movement trajectories. To this end, we propose the use of the HHMM, a rich stochastic model that has been recently extended to handle shared structures, for representing and recognizing a set of complex indoor activities. Furthermore, in the need of real-time recognition, we propose a Rao-Blackwellised particle filter (RBPF) that efficiently computes the filtering distribution at a constant time complexity for each new observation arrival. The main contributions of this paper lie in the application of the shared-structure HHMM, the estimation of the model?s parameters at all levels simultaneously, and a construction of an RBPF approximate inference scheme. The experimental results in a real-world environment have confirmed our belief that directly modelling shared structures not only reduces computational cost, but also improves recognition accuracy when compared with the tree HHMM and the flat HMM.
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