Quantification of strong and weak acidities in bio-oil via non-aqueous potentiometric titration
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In this study a non-aqueous potentiometric titration method has been developed to quantify the carboxylic acids and phenolics in bio-oil. Quarternary ammonium hydroxide was used as the titrant and a mixture of tert-butanol and acetone was used as the solvent to differentiate the acidic components with distinct acidities. The heavy carboxylic acids, which cannot be identified with GC–MS, account for ca. 29–45% (mol basis) of all the carboxylic acids in the bio-oil from mallee wood. In addition, both the heavy and light phenolic components could be identified with the titration method developed, while GC–MS can only identify some light phenolic compounds (3% mol basis). The titration method was further applied to the determination of the concentrations of acidic components in the bio-oils from mallee wood, bark and leaves. The pyrolysis of mallee wood produced the highest yields of acidic components while that of leaves produce the lowest. The successful development of the titration method for quantification of these heavy carboxylic acids and phenolics provides useful information for the further upgrading of bio-oil.
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Hu, Xun; Gunawan, Richard; Mourant, Daniel; Hasan, M.D Mahmudul; Wu, Liping; Song, Yao; Lievens, Caroline; Li, Chun-Zhu (2017)© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Bio-oil is a condensable liquid produced from the pyrolysis of biomass, which can be upgraded to biofuels. Bio-oil is corrosive as it contains significant amounts of carboxylic acids, creating ...
Wu, Liping (2016)Under acid-catalysed condition, the behaviour of different components in bio-oil with alcohols or water was investigated. Heavy carboxylic acids and phenolics in bio-oil were quantified. The reaction routes of typical ...
Acid-treatment of bio-oil in methanol: The distinct catalytic behaviours of a mineral acid catalyst and a solid acid catalystWu, L.; Hu, X.; Wang, Shuai; Mahmudul Hasan, M.; Jiang, S.; Li, T.; Li, C. (2018)© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The different catalytic behaviour of solid acid catalyst and mineral acid catalyst towards the acid-treatment of bio-oil was investigated. The hydrogen ions in the mineral acid catalyst such as sulfuric ...