Improved Power Transformer Winding Fault Detection using FRA Diagnostics – Part 1: Axial Displacement Simulation
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Frequency response analysis (FRA) has become a widely accepted tool to detect power transformer winding deformation due to the development of FRA test equipment. Because FRA relies on graphical analysis, interpretation of its signature is a very specialized area that calls for skilled personnel, as so far, there is no reliable standard code for FRA signature identification and quantification. Many researchers investigated the impact of various mechanical winding deformations on the transformer FRA signature using simulation analysis by altering particular electrical parameters of the transformer equivalent electrical circuit. None of them however, investigated the impact of various physical fault levels on the corresponding change in the equivalent circuit parameters. In this paper, the physical geometrical dimension of a single-phase transformer is simulated using 3D finite element analysis to emulate the real transformer operation. A physical axial displacement of different fault levels is simulated in both low voltage and high voltage windings. The impact of each fault level on the electrical parameters of the equivalent circuit is investigated. A key contribution of this paper is the charts it introduces to correlate various axial displacement levels with the percentage change of all transformer equivalent circuit parameters due to the axial displacement fault. In contrary with other researchers who only considered mutual inductance between low voltage and high voltage windings, simulation results shown in this paper reveal that other circuit parameters should be changed by a particular percentage to accurately simulate particular fault level of transformer winding axial displacement. Results of this paper aid to precisely simulating winding axial displacement using transformer equivalent circuit that facilitates accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of transformer FRA signatures.
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