Perceived autonomy support and autonomous motivation toward mathematics activities in educational and out-of-school contexts is related to mathematics homework behavior and attainment
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We adopted a trans-contextual model of motivation to examine the processes by which school students' perceived autonomy support (defined as students' perceptions that their teachers' support their autonomous or self-determined motivation) and autonomous forms of motivation (defined as motivation to act out of a sense of choice, ownership, and personal agency) toward mathematics activities in an educational context predict autonomous motivation and intentions toward mathematics homework, and actual mathematics homework behavior and attainment, as measured by homework grades, in an out-of-school context. A three-wave prospective study design was adopted. High-school students (N = 216) completed self-report measures of perceived autonomy support and autonomous forms of motivation toward mathematics activities in school in the first wave of data collection. One-week later, participants completed measures of autonomous forms of motivation, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and intentions with respect to mathematics homework outside school. Students' self-reported homework behavior and homework grades from students' class teachers were collected 5-weeks later. A structural equation model supported model hypotheses. Perceived autonomy support and autonomous forms of motivation toward mathematics activities in school were related to autonomous forms of motivation toward mathematics homework outside of school. Autonomous forms of motivation toward mathematics homework predicted intentions to do mathematics homework mediated by attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control.Intentions predicted self-reported mathematics homework behavior and mathematics homework grades. Perceived autonomy support and autonomous forms of motivation toward mathematics in school had statistically significant indirect effects on mathematics homework intentions mediated by the motivational sequence of the model. Results provide preliminary support for the model and evidence that autonomous motivation toward mathematics activities in the classroom is linked with autonomous motivation, intention, behavior and actual attainment in mathematics homework outside of school.
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