'Ecstasy' and the use of sleep medications in a general community sample: a 4-year follow-up
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This is the accepted version of the following article: Tait, Robert J. and George, Amanda and Olesen, Sarah. 2013. 'Ecstasy' and the use of sleep medications in a general community sample: a 4-year follow-up. Addiction. 108 (9): pp. 1640-1648., which has been published in final form at http://doi.org/10.1111/add.12200
Aims: Animal models show that a single dose of MDMA (‘ecstasy’) can result in long-term disruption of sleep. We evaluated the relationship between ecstasy consumption and the use of sleep medications in humans after controlling for key factors. Design: The Personality and Total Health Through Life project uses a longitudinal cohort with follow-up every four years. This study reports data from waves two and three. Setting: Participants were recruited from the electoral roll in the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, New South Wales, Australia. Participants: Participants were aged 20-24 years at wave one (1999-2000).Measures: The study collected self-reported data on ecstasy, meth/amphetamine, cannabis, alcohol, tobacco and use of sleeping medications (pharmaceutical or other substances). Depression was categorised with the Brief Patient Health Questionnaire (BPHQ). Other psychosocial measures included lifetime traumas. We used generalised estimating equations to model outcomes. Results: Ecstasy data were available from 2128 people at wave two and 1977 at wave three: sleeping medication use was reported by 227 (10.7%) respondents at wave two and 239 (12.1%) at wave three. Increased odds ratios (OR) for sleeping medication use was found for those with depression (OR=1.88, (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39, 2.53), women (OR=1.44, 95% CI 1.13, 1.84), and increased by 19% for each lifetime trauma. Ecstasy use was not a significant predictor, but ≥monthly versus never meth/amphetamine use increased the odds (OR=3.03, 95% CI 1.30, 7.03). Conclusion: The use of ecstasy was not associated with the use of sleeping medications controlling for other risk factors.
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