Developing and validating a multidimensional nonprofit brand orientation scale
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Operating in a progressively more competitive and turbulent environment, nonprofit organizations are beginning to recognize the need to become more "businesslike" and of the value of marketing in achieving a competitive advantage. Whilst marketing alone is not purported to be a "quick-fix" elixir in this regard, it does have the potential to make a useful and ongoing contribution to organizational performance in the nonprofit sector. Indeed, marketing scholars have for some time now been examining the role, function, relevance and transferability of various marketing principles and practices to nonprofit organizations. Surprisingly, the concept of brand management has been largely overlooked in this process. Using Keller's [Harv. Bus. Rev. 78 (2000) 147] brand report card (BRC) as a point of departure, this article describes the development of a reliable, valid and generalizable multidimensional scale to assess nonprofit brand orientation (NBO). Findings from two empirical surveys are presented, conclusions drawn and future research directions outlined.
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