Levulinic esters from the acid-catalysed reactions of sugars and alcohols as part of a bio-refinery
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Hu, X. and Li, C. 2011. Levulinic esters from the acid-catalysed reactions of sugars and alcohols as part of a bio-refinery. Green Chemistry. 13: pp. 1676-1679.
Department of Chemical Engineering
Polymeric humin formation greatly diminishes levulinic acid yields in acid treatment of C6 sugars in aqueous medium. Protecting reactive functional groups of sugars and reaction intermediates via acetalisation and etherification in methanol medium effectively suppresses humin formation and remarkably enhances the production of levulinic esters.