Insights into the critical role of NADPH oxidase(s) in the normal and dysregulated pancreatic beta cell
MetadataShow full item record
It is now widely accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to cell and tissue dysfunction and damage in diabetes. The source of ROS in the insulin secreting pancreatic beta cells has traditionally been considered to be the mitochondrial electron transport chain. While this source is undoubtedly important, we fully describe in this article recent information and evidence of NADPH oxidase-dependent generation of ROS in pancreatic beta cells and identify the various isoforms that contribute to O 2•- and H2O2 production in various conditions. While glucose-stimulated ROS generation may be important for acute regulation of insulin secretion, at higher levels ROS may disrupt mitochondrial energy metabolism. However, ROS may alter other cellular processes such as signal transduction, ion fluxes and/or cell proliferation/death. The various beta cell isoforms of NADPH oxidase (described in this review) may, via differences in the kinetics and species of ROS generated, positively and negatively regulate insulin secretion and cell survival. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Dincer, Tuna (2000)Lactose is the major carbohydrate in milk. The presence of lactose in whey constitutes a significant pollution problem for dairy factories. At the same time, there is an increasing market for high quality crystalline ...
Selective estrogen receptor-beta (SERM-beta) compounds modulate raphe nuclei tryptophan hydroxylase-1 (TPH-1) mRNA expression and cause antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim testClark, J.; Alves, S.; Gundlah, C.; Rocha, B.; Birzin, E.; Cai, S.; Flick, R.; Hayes, E.; Ho, K.; Warrier, Sudha; Pai, L.; Yudkovitz, J.; Fleischer, R.; Colwell, L.; Li, S.; Wilkinson, H.; Schaeffer, J.; Wilkening, R.; Mattingly, E.; Hammond, M.; Rohrer, S. (2012)Estrogen acts through two molecularly distinct receptors termed estrogen receptor alpha (ERa) and estrogen receptor beta (ERß) which bind estradiol with similar affinities and mediate the effects of estrogen throughout ...
Cystine accumulation attenuates insulin release from the pancreatic beta-cell due to elevated oxidative stress and decreased ATP levels.McEvoy, B.; Sumayao, R.; Slattery, C.; McMorrow, T.; Newsholme, Philip (2015)The pancreatic beta-cell has reduced antioxidant defences making it more susceptible to oxidative stress. In cystinosis, a lysosomal storage disorder, an altered redox state may contribute to cellular dysfunction. This ...