Review of International Grid Codes for Wind Power Integration: Diversity, Technology and a case for Global Standard
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This paper presents a comprehensive study on the latest grid code regulations enforced by transmission system operators on large wind power plants (WPPs). First, the most common requirements included in the majority of international grid codes are compared; namely, low and high voltage ride-through capabilities, active and reactive power responses during and after faults, extended range of voltage–frequency variations, active power (frequency) control facility, and reactive power (voltage) regulation support. The paper also presents a discussion on the global harmonization of international grid codes as well as future trends expected in the regulations. Finally, the evolution of different wind generator technologies to fulfill various grid code requirements is investigated. The presented study will assist system operators to establish their connection requirements for the first time or to compare their existing regulations with other operators. It also enables wind turbine manufacturers and wind farm developers to obtain a more precise understanding from the latest international requirements imposed on modern wind farms.
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