LTC and Switched Shunt Capacitor Scheduling in Smart Grid with Electric Vehicles and Wind Distributed Generation Systems
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Future smart grids (SGs) are expected to include distributed generations (DG), plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and smart appliances, as well as nonlinear industrial loads that may decrease grid efficiency and deteriorate the quality of electric power. This paper performs optimal (load tap changer)LTC and switched shunt capacitor (SSC) in SGs with nonlinear loads, wind distributed generation (WDGs) systems and PEV charging at consumers’ premises and PEV charging stations (PEV-CSs). The substantial grid energy requirements at high PEV penetrations is assumed to be partially supplied by WDGs located within the distribution network. PEV charging is performed based on a recently proposed online maximum sensitivities selection based coordination algorithm (OL-MSSCA), nonlinear loads are assumed to inject low order odd current harmonics and WDGs are treated as negative PQ loads in the employed decoupled harmonic load flow (DHLF) algorithm. Simulations are performed for the modified IEEE 23kV distribution system with three WDGs, three PEV-CSs and 22 low voltage residential networks with PEVs. Impacts of PEV coordination and WDG on the LTC/SSC scheduling outcomes including grid losses, voltage profiles and THDs are investigated.
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