Antecedents of need supportive and controlling interpersonal styles from a self-determination theory perspective: A review and implications for sport psychology research
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The purpose of this chapter is to identify the antecedents of two interpersonal styles adopted by coaches that are proposed in self-determination theory [SDT; Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2002). An overview of self-determination theory. In E. L. Deci, & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3–33). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.], namely need supportive and controlling styles. The degree to which individuals in positions of authority or leadership (eg, coaches) adopt a communication style that is need supportive and/or controlling determines the degree of psychological need satisfaction experienced by people they interact with (eg, athletes), and indirectly the quality of their motivation, well-being and behavioral engagement. Much more is known about the consequences as opposed to the antecedents of these two styles. Our review addresses this gap by examining what is known on this topic from the SDT literature in the educational, parental, sport, work, and health domains. Applications of findings from this diverse literature in sport are discussed and gaps in current knowledge are identified. Potential additional antecedents that may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of why coaches adopt need supportive and/or controlling interpersonal styles are proposed.
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