Increasing cancer mortality among opioid-dependent persons in Australia: A new public health challenge for a disadvantaged population
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Objective: To examine cancer mortality in a population-based cohort of opioiddependent persons. Methods: New South Wales opioid substitution therapy (OST) program registrants from 1985 to 2005 (n=43,789) were probabilistically linked to the National Death Index. Crude and standardised mortality rates and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Results: The crude cancer mortality rate increased from 4 to 65 deaths per 100,000 person-years (p trend <0.001). Overall, OST registrants were 1.7 times more likely to die of cancer than the general population (SMR 95% CI 1.4-1.9). Sitespecifc SMRs were signifcantly elevated for lung cancer (3.6, 95% CI 2.8-4.6), liver cancer (6.9, 95% CI 4.3-10.5), and anogenital cancers (2.8, 95% CI 1.3-5.3), and signifcantly reduced for breast cancer (0.4, 95% CI 0.1-0.9). Conclusions: Cancer is an increasingly important cause of death among OST registrants as they live longer with their dependency. The site-specifc excess deaths suggest the role of tobacco, alcohol, and infection with hepatitis C and human papillomavirus. Implications: The OST setting may be a useful setting for the delivery of programs aimed at detection of precursor lesions, reducing exposure to established carcinogens, and treatment for those with HCV infection. Such targeted steps are likely to reduce the future cancer burden in this population. © 2011 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2011 Public Health Association of Australia.
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