Graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A population-based study in remote Australia
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Background/aim: Few studies have examined graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). Methods: Graphomotor skills were assessed in 108 predominantly Australian Aboriginal children aged 7.5-9.6 years in remote Western Australia using clinical observations (pencil grasp; writing pressure) and standardised assessment tools (the Evaluation Tool of Children's Handwriting; and the Miller Function and Participation Scales - The Draw-a-Kid Game). Skills were compared between children (i) without PAE, (ii) PAE but not FASD and (iii) FASD. Results: Most children used a transitional pencil grasp and exerted heavy handwriting pressure (83.3% and 30.6% of the cohort). The percentage of letters (M = 62.9%) and words (M = 73.3%) written legibly was low. Children with FASD were more likely than children without PAE to use a cross-thumb grasp (P = 0.027), apply heavy writing pressure (P = 0.036), be unable to write a sentence (P = 0.041) and show poorer word legibility (P = 0.041). There were no significant differences between groups for drawing outcomes, although some children with FASD drew pictures that appeared delayed for their age. There were no significant differences between children without PAE and those with PAE but who were not diagnosed with FASD. Conclusions: Overall, graphomotor skills were poor in this cohort, but children with FASD performed significantly worse than children without PAE. Findings suggest the need for improved occupational therapy services for children in remote regions and evaluation of graphomotor skills in children with PAE. © 2016 Occupational Therapy Australia.
This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Doney, R. and Lucas, B. and Jirikowic, T. and Tsang, T. and Watkins, R. and Sauer, K. and Howat, P. et al. 2017. Graphomotor skills in children with prenatal alcohol exposure and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A population-based study in remote Australia. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. 64 (1): pp. 68-78., which has been published in final form at http://doi.org/10.1111/1440-1630.12326. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving at http://olabout.wiley.com/WileyCDA/Section/id-828039.html
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Fine motor skills in a population of children in remote Australia with high levels of prenatal alcohol exposure and Fetal Alcohol Spectrum DisorderDoney, Robyn; Lucas, B.; Watkins, R.; Tsang, T.; Sauer, Kay; Howat, Peter; Latimer, J.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Oscar, J.; Carter, M.; Elliott, E. (2017)© 2017 The Author(s). Background: Many children in the remote Fitzroy Valley region of Western Australia have prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). Individuals with PAE can have neurodevelopmental impairments and be diagnosed ...
Visual-motor integration, visual perception, and fine motor coordination in a population of children with high levels of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum DisorderDoney, R.; Lucas, B.; Watkins, R.; Tsang, T.; Sauer, K.; Howat, Peter; Latimer, J.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Oscar, J.; Carter, M.; Elliott, E. (2016)© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Background: Visual-motor integration (VMI) skills are essential for successful academic performance, but to date no studies have assessed these skills in a population-based cohort of Australian ...
Lucas, B.; Latimer, J.; Doney, Robyn Michelle; Watkins, R.; Tsang, T.; Hawkes, G.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Oscar, J.; Carter, M.; Elliott, E. (2016)© 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians). Aim: This study aimed to determine the gross motor (GM) performance of Aboriginal children living in remote Australia. The ...