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A symbiosis island is a genomic island that confers upon the bacterium carrying it the ability to form a mutualistic relationship with a eukaryotic host. The symbiosis island of Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A is a 501.8-kb chromosomally integrated element that is able to excise and transfer by conjugation to nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia in the environment. The recipients are converted to symbionts able to nodulate and fix nitrogen with Lotus species. The island integrates into a phe-tRNA gene, reconstructing the gene at one (left) end of the island and producing a 17-bp direct repeat of the 3′ end of the tRNA gene at the other end. The island has a mosaic structure suggesting that it evolved in a stepwise fashion via multiple recombination events. It is a member of an emerging class of acquired genetic elements termed ‘integrative and conjugative elements’ that contribute to the diversification and adaptation of bacteria to environmental niches.
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Haskett, T.; Terpolilli, J.; Bekuma, A.; O'Hara, G.; Sullivan, J.; Wang, P.; Ronson, C.; Ramsay, Joshua (2016)Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are ubiquitous mobile genetic elements present as "genomic islands" within bacterial chromosomes. Symbiosis islands are ICEs that convert nonsymbiotic mesorhizobia into symbionts ...
A LuxRI-family regulatory system controls excision and transfer of the Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A symbiosis island by activating expression of two conserved hypothetical genesRamsay, Joshua; Sullivan, J.; Jambari, N.; Ortori, C.; Heeb, S.; Williams, P.; Barrett, D.; Lamont, L.; Ronson, C. (2009)The symbiosis island ICEM/SymR7A of Mesorhizobium loti R7A is an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) that carries genes required for a nitrogen-fixing symbiosis with Lotus species. ICEM/SymR7A encodes homologues ...
Ribosomal frameshifting and dual-target antiactivation restrict quorum-sensing-activated transfer of a mobile genetic elementRamsay, Joshua; Tester, L.; Major, A.; Sullivan, J.; Edgar, C.; Kleffmann, T.; Patterson-House, Jackson; Hall, D.; Tate, W.; Hynes, M.; Ronson, C. (2015)Symbiosis islands are integrative and conjugative mobile genetic elements that convert nonsymbiotic rhizobia into nitrogen-fixing symbionts of leguminous plants. Excision of the Mesorhizobium loti symbiosis island ICEMlSymR7A ...