Which studies test whether self-enhancement is pancultural? Reply to Sedikides, Gaertner, and Vevea, 2007
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What types of studies test the question of pancultural self-enhancement? Sedikides, Gaertner, and Vevea (2007) have identified inclusion criteria that largely limit the question to studies of the better-than-average effect (i.e. 27 out of 29 effects that they include as ‘validated’ and ‘relevant’). In contrast, other effects which they labelled as ‘unvalidated’ or ‘irrelevant’ used methods other than the better-than-average effect (i.e. 24 out of 24 effects). Because Sedikides et al. are drawing conclusions about pancultural self-enhancement and not the pancultural better-than-average effect, these excluded studies are relevant to the hypothesis under question. Ignoring the findings from other methods is highly problematic, in particular because these other methods yield results that conflict with those from the better-than-average effect. An analysis of effects from all studies reveals no support for pancultural self-enhancement.
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Why the better-than-average effect is a worse-than-average measure of self-enhancement: An investigation of conflicting findings from studies of East Asian self-evaluationsHamamura, Takeshi; Heine, S.; Takemoto, T. (2007)A recent meta-analysis on cross-cultural studies of self-enhancement finds that evidence for East Asian selfenhancement is consistently apparent only in studies where participants compare themselves to the average other, ...
Heine, S.; Hamamura, Takeshi (2007)meta-analysis of published cross-cultural studies of self-enhancement reveals pervasive and pronounced differences between East Asians and Westerners. Across 91 comparisons, the average cross-cultural effect was d = .84. ...
Inclusion of additional studies yields different conclusions: Comment on Sedikides, Gaertner, & Vevea (2005), Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyHeine, S.; Kitayama, S.; Hamamura, Takeshi (2007)In a Journal of Personality and Social Psychology article, Sedikides, Gaertner and Vevea (2005) presented two meta-analyses that included eight papers to investigate the question of whether people from Eastern cultures ...