Revisiting Duffus and Dearden's wildlife tourism framework
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NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Biological Conservation. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Biological Conservation [VOL 144, ISSUE 5, May 2011] DOI 10.1016/j.biocon.2011.01.021
This paper revisits Duffus and Dearden (1990) article 'Non-Consumptive Wildlife-Oriented Recreation: a conceptual framework' published in Biological Conservation two decades ago. This model was developed as a tool to assist managers and researchers in achieving the best outcomes for both environmental conservation and the provision of wildlife tourism experiences. The body of literature examining wildlife tourism has grown significantly over the intervening period; however, this highly respected model has not been subject to critical review even though a number of recent empirical studies have successfully applied the concept. This has created an opportunity for reflection on its merits and potential. In particular, this paper discusses these findings to assess the contemporary value of this approach. It is contended that the framework still provides an appropriate means of predicting and managing change in a wildlife tourism system. Given the ability of the model to combine theoretical perspectives with practical outcomes and the now emerging body of literature based upon it, continued application and refinement of this model is more pertinent than ever.
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