Cognitive impairment among Indonesia HIV naïve patients
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Background: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) can decreased the incidence of HIV dementia, but milder cognitive impairment may not resolve when patients receive ART. In Indonesia, cognitive screening of HIV patients is not routinely performed before starting ART. Here we assess cognitive impairment in ART- naïve HIV patients beginning treatment in Jakarta. Methods: This is a cross sectional study with inclusion criteria: HIV positive, ART naïve, CD4 T-cells below 200 cells/uL, Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS) above 70. HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND) was defined by performance at least 1 Standard Deviation (SD) below the mean of demographically adjusted normative scores in at least two cognitive areas. Results: We studied 82 subjects with median (range) age 31 (19-48) years. Fifty six subjects (68%) were males. HAND was found in 42 subjects (51%). Eight subjects (19%) had impairment in 4 domains, 15 subjects (36%) in 3 and 19 (45%) in 2. The most common domain affected was memory (63%). Conclusion: Our results show the prevalence of HAND is high among HIV naïve patients in Jakarta. This establishes the need for screening of cognitive function before initiating ART.
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