A study on hydrochemical elucidation of coastal groundwater in and around Kalpakkam region, Southern India
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The chemical composition of 29 bore well water samples throughout the Kalpakkam region, South India, was determined to identify the major hydrogeochemical processes and the suitability of groundwater for domestic and irrigation purposes. The hydrochemical data were analyzed with reference to World Health Organization (WHO) standards and their hydrochemical facies were determined. The Piper plot shows that most of the groundwater samples fall in the field of mixed calcium–sodium–bicarbonate type followed by sodium–chloride, calcium–bicarbonate and mixed calcium–magnesium–chloride water types. The concentration of total dissolved solids exceeds the desirable limit in about 14% of samples; alkalinity values exceed the desirable limit in about 34% of the samples. The concentration of sulphate is well within the desirable limit at all the locations. The dominance of various heavy metals in the groundwater followed the sequence: Zn > Fe > Mn > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Cd. Among the metal ions, the concentration of chromium and cadmium are within the permissible limit. Data are plotted on the US Salinity Laboratory diagram, which illustrates that most of the samples fall in the field of high salinity and low sodium hazard, which can be used to irrigate salt tolerant and semi-tolerant crops under favorable drainage conditions. Based on the analytical results, chemical indices like sodium adsorption ratio and residual sodium carbonate were calculated which show that most of the samples are good for irrigation.
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