Incidence of first heart failure hospitalisation and mortality in Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal patients in Western Australia, 2000–2009
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Objectives: To compare the incidence of first heart failure (HF) hospitalisation, antecedent risk factors and 1-year mortality between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal populations in Western Australia (2000–2009). Methods: A population-based cohort aged 20–84 years comprising Aboriginal (n = 1013; mean 54 ± 14 years) and non-Aboriginal patients (n = 16,366; mean 71 ± 11 years) with first HF hospitalisation was evaluated. Age and sex-specific incidence rates and HF antecedents were compared between subpopulations. Regression models were used to examine 30-day and 1-year (in 30-day survivors) mortality. Results: Aboriginal patients were younger, more likely to reside in rural/remote areas (76% vs 23%) and to be women (50.6% vs 41.7%, all p < 0.001). Aboriginal (versus non-Aboriginal) HF incidence rates were 11-fold higher in men and 23-fold in women aged 20–39 years, declining to about 2-fold in patients aged 70–84 years. Ischaemic and rheumatic heart diseases were more common antecedents of HF in younger (< 55 years) Aboriginal versus non-Aboriginal patients (p < 0.001). Hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, renal failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a high Charlson comorbidity index (>= 3) were also more prevalent in younger and older Aboriginal patients (p < 0.001). Although 30-day mortality was similar in both subpopulations, Aboriginal patients aged < 55 years had a 1.9 risk-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for 1-year mortality (p = 0.015). Conclusions: Aboriginal people had substantially higher age and sex-specific HF incidence rate and prevalence of HF antecedents than their non-Aboriginal counterparts. HR for 1-year mortality was also significantly worse at younger ages, highlighting the urgent need for enhanced primary and secondary prevention of HF in this population.
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