Evaluating flood hazard for land-use planning in greater Dhaka of Bangladesh using remote sensing and GIS techniques
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Floods are a common feature in rapidly urbanizing Dhaka and its adjoining areas. Though Greater Dhaka experiences flood almost in every year, flood management policies are mostly based on structural options including flood walls, dykes, embankments etc. Many shortcomings of the existing flood management systems are reported in numerous literatures. The objective of this paper is to assess flood hazard in Greater Dhaka for the historical flood event of 1998 using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data with GIS data. Flood-affected frequency and flood depth calculated from the multi-date SAR imageries were used as hydrologic parameters. Elevation heights, land cover classification,geomorphic division and drainage network data generated from optical remote sensing and analogue maps were used through GIS approach. Using a ranking matrix in three dimensional multiplication mode, flood hazard was assessed.All possible combination of flood hazard maps was prepared using land-cover, geomorphology and elevation heights for flood-affected frequency and floodwater depth. Using two hazard maps which produced the highest congruence for flood frequency and flood depth, a new flood hazard map was developed by considering the interactive effect of flood-affected frequency and floodwater depth, simultaneously. This new hazard map can provide more safety for flood countermeasures because pixels belonging to higher hazard degrees were increased due to the consideration of higher degrees of ranks. The estimation of flood hazard areas revealed that a major portion of Greater Dhaka comprised moderate to very high hazard zone. Only a little portion (8.04%) was found to be the least vulnerable to potential flood hazard. Conversely, 28.70% of Greater Dhaka was found within very high hazard zone. Based on this study, comprehensive flood hazard management strategies for land use planning decision were proposed for the efficient management of future flood disasters.
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