Hydrophone VSP surveys in hard rock
|dc.identifier.citation||Greenwood, Andrew and Dupuis, Christian J. and Urosevic, Milovan and Kepic, Anton. 2012. Hydrophone VSP surveys in hard rock. Geophysics. 77 (5): pp. WC223-WC234.|
Seismic imaging in hard rock environments is gaining wider acceptance as an exploration technique and as a mine-planning tool. To date, 13 successful case studies have been acquired in Australia. The images generated from hard rock targets exhibit large levels of complexity and their interpretations remain an active area of study. To assist the imaging and better understand the source of the reflections observed, vertical seismic profiling (VSP) can be employed. This technique is not readily applied to hard rock environments because cost and operational issues often prove prohibitive. We propose the use of hydrophone arrays as a cost effective solution to VSP acquisition. We highlight the key challenges in using these receivers and propose solutions to overcome them. By careful acquisition methodologies and refined signal processing techniques, the tube waves that have up to now compromised the use of hydrophones for VSP acquisition can be effectively mitigated. We show that the data acquired with hydrophones compare favorably to that acquired with conventional 3C geophones. The data acquired with hydrophones come at a fraction of the cost and deployment time required for conventional acquisition procedures. Our results show that hydrophone vertical seismic acquisition is a viable, cost effective, and efficient solution that should be employed more routinely in hard rock environments to enhance the value of the surface data sets being acquired.
|dc.publisher||Society of Exploration Geophysics|
|dc.subject||vertical seismic profile (VPS)|
|dc.title||Hydrophone VSP surveys in hard rock|
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