Dietary selenium requirement of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)
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The dietary selenium (Se) requirement of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) in normal and infected conditions was investigated. The fish were fed one of five experimental diets; a control un-supplemented diet (3.35 mg/kg Se) or diets supplemented with Se to provide 4.86, 5.38, 5.85 or 6.38 mg/kg Se. After feeding for 6 weeks, the fish were challenged by Vibrio anguillarum immersion and then observed for 4 weeks. Supplementation of Se had no effect on feed intake, feed conversion ratio and survival over 6 weeks of feeding; however, it significantly increased growth and Se content in muscle tissues. The optimal Se level for maximal growth of yellowtail kingfish estimated by second order regression was 5.56 mg/kg. Following the bacterial challenge, the immune-stimulating effects of Se were demonstrated in lysozyme and bactericidal activities, and there was a corresponding increase in survival and antibody response by supplementation of Se at ≥2 mg/kg (measured Se of ≥5.38 mg/kg). Under normal and infectious conditions, antioxidant capacity of fish measured as glutathione peroxidase activity increased by supplementation of Se. During post-challenge period, haematocrits were higher in the fish fed Se supplemented diets than the fish fed the control diet, while more macrophage aggregates were seen in the control group than in the others. Furthermore, there was evidence of myopathy in fish fed the diet without Se supplementation. Therefore, the results indicated that the optimal dietary Se requirement of yellowtail kingfish is 5.56 mg/kg.
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