Associations between the Classroom Learning Environment and Student Engagement in Learning 2: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach
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This report is about the second of two phases in an investigation into associations between student engagement in classroom learning and the classroom-learning environment. Whereas the first phase utilized Rasch modelling (Cavanagh, 2012), this report uses latent variable modelling to explore the data. The investigations in both phases of this study employed a novel model of engagement in classroom learning based on flow theory and bio-ecological frameworks. An 85-item survey item was used to collect data from 1760 secondary-school students. Comparable to the findings of the first phase, there was strong evidence for the psychometric properties of the instrument measuring the latent constructs of student engagement in classroom learning and the characteristics of the classroomlearning environment. Furthermore, classroom-learning environment characteristics had direct effects on students’ self-esteem and had direct and indirect effects on students’ expectations of the classroom environment. Classroom characteristics directly influencing students’ self-esteem included the educational values, learning outcomes, classroom learning and parental support. Classroom characteristics directly influencing students’ expectations included the educational values, learning outcomes, classroom learning, support from fellow students and expectations of the teacher. Among other benefits, the two phases of this study enable comparison of contemporary analytic approaches: Rasch and Structural Equation Modelling.
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