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Majer, Jonathan. 2012. Indicator Species, in Craig, R.K. and Nagle, J.C. and Pardy, B. and Schmitz, O.J. and Smith, W.K. (ed), Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability, Volume 5: Ecosystem management and sustainability, pp. 200-203. Great Barrington, MA: Berkshire Publishing Group.
Berkshire Encyclopedia of Sustainability 5/10
The effects of the numerous threats to the sustainability of our ecosystems are often hard to detect, sometimes manifesting themselves when it is too late to take remedial action. Monitoring using species or groups of species, selected from certain taxa can provide on early warning of changes in ecosystems and can also be used to measure the degree of success with attempts to restore such areas.