The Development and Implementation of An Antenatal Resilience and Optimism Workshop
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Mothers play a significant role in building healthy generations. It is important to ensure that mothers have high levels of resilience and optimism, a positive attribution style to protect them from risks leading to antenatal and/or post natal depressive symptoms. Many studies have found that antenatal depression is a predictor for postnatal depression (Leigh & Milgrom, 2008). Optimistic expectations are associated with positive psychological adjustment during pregnancy (Harwood, McLean, & Durkin, 2007), and resilience interventions enhance protective factors and coping strategies, and reduce the symptoms of stress and depression (Steinhardt & Dolbier, 2008). The study consists of two parts: firstly the development of a 2-day Resilience and Optimism Workshop (ROW) module and worksheet booklet specifically designed for pregnant women who are in their second trimester and secondly, the evaluation of its efficacy in preventing post natal depressive symptoms. In the first study, ROW module combines activities and topics (empowerment, belief, resilience, optimistic attitude, cultural matters, and knowledge of antenatal care) gathered through interview with pregnant women and mothers. The ROW is facilitated by clinical psychologists and a gynaecologist.The second study will evaluate the efficacy of ROW in preventing postnatal depressive symptoms by measuring level of resilience, attribution style (optimism and pessimism), depression, anxiety, stress, quality of life and enjoyment, as well as screening for potential clinical disorders. Eight primary health care clinics in Surabaya-Indonesia are randomly assigned to either an intervention or a wait-list (control) group condition. Participants in both groups are measured at pre and post-test then at 6-week and 6-month follow-ups. This paper demonstrates the first study as a tool to assess its impact in the second study. If the antenatal ROW is effective in preventing postnatal depressive symptoms, it will be recommended as a regular antenatal care program in Indonesia.
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