Optimal production scale of open pit mining operations with uncertain metal supply and long-term stockpiles
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An open pit mining operation consists of various stages, and the calculation of the production capacities of these stages depends upon the available supply of ore (mineralized material of economic value) and waste material. Cutoff grade is the criterion that specifies the amount of ore and waste. The material with grade equal to or higher than the cutoff grade is classified as ore. The material with grade less than the cutoff grade is considered waste. While this explains the link between cutoff grade theory and the calculation of production capacities, the majority of optimization models for finding production capacities not only disregards this relationship but also ignores expected variations and uncertainty in metal content or the available supply of ore and waste material. This work proposes an extension to an established theory of cutoff grade to determine the optimal production capacities using a stochastic framework relying on multiple realizations of the grade-tonnage curves. The proposed model (i) maximizes the net present value of cash flows over the life of an operation; (ii) offsets the initial investment in developing the constituent stages of an operation; and (iii) explores the impact of creating a long-term stockpile on the designed operational capacities. Applications to both a hypothetical and an actual copper deposit demonstrate the benefits of this model.
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A heuristic approach to stochastic cutoff grade optimization for open pit mining complexes with multiple processing streamsAsad, Mohammad Waqar; Dimitrakopoulos, R. (2013)Cutoff grade specifies the available supply of metallic ore from an open pit mine to the multiple processing streams of an open pit mining complex. An optimal cutoff grade strategy maximizes the net present value (NPV) ...
Asad, M.; Topal, Erkan (2011)The optimum cut-off grade policy maximizes the net present value (NPV) of an open pit mining operation subject to the mining, processing, and refining capacity constraints. The traditional approaches to cut-off grade ...
Asad, Mohammad; Qureshi, M.; Jang, Hyong Doo (2016)© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. In an open pit mining operation, the heterogeneity of the grade-tonnage distribution of the deposit dictates that all available material within the boundaries of an open pit may not be processed. Given ...