Effect of advice to increase carbohydrate and reduce fat intake on dietary profile and plasma lipid concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women
MetadataShow full item record
Background: The current dietary guidelines advise an increase in carbohydrate intake. However, there is concern regarding the effect this may have on coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, in particular in postmenopausal women, in light of the knowledge that raised triacylglycerol (TAG) may pose a stronger risk for CHD in this group. Aim: To evaluate the effect of advice to increase carbohydrate intake to 50% of energy intake as part of advice to follow current dietary guidelines on the dietary profile, including dietary glycaemic index (GI) and plasma lipids in healthy postmenopausal women. Methods: Twelve healthy postmenopausal women (56 ± 6.5 years) took part in the study. Habitual diet was assessed by a 7-day weighed intake. On the basis of the results, subjects were advised to increase their carbohydrate intake to comply with the current dietary guidelines. Subjects were asked to follow this diet for 4 weeks, in a free-living situation. Fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 1 and 4 weeks. Results: There was a significant decrease in body mass index (BMI; p < 0.05) after 4 weeks. There was a significant increase in fasting TAG concentrations after 1 week (p < 0.05), and the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) after 1 and 4 weeks. The subjects significantly increased their percentage of energy from carbohydrates and starch (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively) after 1 week, and their percentage of energy from starch after 4 weeks (p < 0.05). Dietary GI was significantly increased (p < 0.05) after 1 and 4 weeks. Fruit and vegetable intake was significantly increased after 1 week (p < 0.01), as was fruit intake alone (p < 0.05), and there was a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the 'antioxidant power' as measured by the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay. Conclusion: In postmenopausal women, following the UK dietary guidelines resulted in changes in the lipid profile that were more likely to favour an increased risk of CHD, as TAG concentrations were increased and HDL cholesterol concentrations were reduced. However, in addition, we found a significant reduction in BMI and a significant increase in the 'antioxidant power' of plasma, which should benefit health. © 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
The relationship of maternal micronutrient intakes of Vitamin B12, vitamin B6, folate and calcium on intrauterine growth retardation and birth weight : a prospective cohort study of urban South Indian pregnant womenDwarkanath, Pratibha (2011)The period of intrauterine growth and development is one of the most vulnerable periods in the human life cycle. The weight of the infant at birth is a powerful predictor of infant growth and survival, and is ...
Alaei Shahmiri, Fariba (2012)Chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent studies have shown that in addition to diabetes mellitus, non-diabetic degrees of fasting ...
Pallebage-Gamarallage, Menuka Madhavi Somapala (2012)Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia pathologically characterised by neurovascular inflammation, extracellular proteinaceous deposits enriched in amyloid-β (Aβ) and formation of neurofibrillar ...