The search for biomarkers of immune restoration disease associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy
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Immune restoration disease associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a complication of antiretroviral therapy seen in a subset of HIV-1 patients soon after they commence antiretroviral therapy. It is characterized by a 'paradoxical' worsening of treated tuberculosis or an 'unmasking' of subclinical tuberculosis. As antiretroviral therapy becomes increasingly available in countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, this form of immune restoration disease will become more common. Here we summarize biomarkers that may illuminate immunopathogenesis and assist in diagnosis. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd.
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Mycobacterial antibody levels and immune restoration disease in HIV patients treated in South East AsiaSumatoh, H.; Oliver, B.; Kumar, M.; Elliott, J.; Vonthanak, S.; Vun, M.; Singh, S.; Agarwal, U.; Kumar, A.; Tan, H.; Kamarulzaman, A.; Yunihastuti, E.; Saraswati, H.; Price, Patricia (2011)Aim: Immune restoration disease (IRD) associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis parallels the reconstitution of a pathogen-specific Th1 response. However, it is not clear whether humoral responses to M. tuberculosis ...
Gesesew, H.; Tsehayneh, B.; Massa, D.; Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay; Kahsay, H.; Mwanri, L. (2016)Background: Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection is a bidirectional and synergistic combination of two very important pathogens in public health. To date, there have been limited clinical data regarding mortality rates among ...
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