The search for biomarkers of immune restoration disease associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in HIV patients beginning antiretroviral therapy
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Immune restoration disease associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a complication of antiretroviral therapy seen in a subset of HIV-1 patients soon after they commence antiretroviral therapy. It is characterized by a 'paradoxical' worsening of treated tuberculosis or an 'unmasking' of subclinical tuberculosis. As antiretroviral therapy becomes increasingly available in countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis, this form of immune restoration disease will become more common. Here we summarize biomarkers that may illuminate immunopathogenesis and assist in diagnosis. © 2011 Future Medicine Ltd.
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Mycobacterial antibody levels and immune restoration disease in HIV patients treated in South East AsiaSumatoh, H.; Oliver, B.; Kumar, M.; Elliott, J.; Vonthanak, S.; Vun, M.; Singh, S.; Agarwal, U.; Kumar, A.; Tan, H.; Kamarulzaman, A.; Yunihastuti, E.; Saraswati, H.; Price, Patricia (2011)Aim: Immune restoration disease (IRD) associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis parallels the reconstitution of a pathogen-specific Th1 response. However, it is not clear whether humoral responses to M. tuberculosis ...
Tuberculosis after commencing antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection is associated with elevated CXCL9 and CXCL10 responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigensOliver, B.; Elliott, J.; Price, Patricia; Phillips, M.; Cooper, D.; French, M. (2012)BACKGROUND: Commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV patients with treated or unrecognised Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease may trigger tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) ...
Tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in patients infected with HIV: meningitis a potentially life threatening manifestationAgarwal, U.; Kumar, A.; Behera, D.; French, M.; Price, Patricia (2012)Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common co infection in HIV-infected persons in India, requiring concomitant administration of anti TB and antiretroviral therapies. Paradoxical worsening of tuberculosis after ...