Differing Psychologically Derived Clusters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain are Associated With Different Multidimensional Profiles
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This is a non-final version of an article published in final form in Rabey, M. and Smith, A. and Beales, D. and Slater, H. and O'Sullivan, P. 2016. Differing Psychologically Derived Clusters in People With Chronic Low Back Pain are Associated With Different Multidimensional Profiles. Clinical Journal of Pain. 32 (12): pp. 1015-1027.
Objectives: To explore the existence of subgroups in a cohort with chronic low back pain (n=294) based upon data from multiple psychological questionnaires, and profile subgroups on data from multiple dimensions. Methods: Psychological questionnaires considered as indicator variables entered into latent class analysis included: Depression, Anxiety, Stress scales, Thought Suppression and Behavioural Endurance subscales (Avoidance Endurance questionnaire), Chronic Pain Acceptance questionnaire (short-form), Pain Catastrophising Scale, Pain Self-Efficacy questionnaire, and Fear-Avoidance Beliefs questionnaire. Multidimensional profiling of derived clusters included: demographics, pain characteristics, pain responses to movement, behaviors associated with pain, body perception, pain sensitivity, and health and lifestyle factors. Results: Three clusters were derived. Cluster 1 (23.5%) was characterized by low cognitive and affective questionnaire scores, with the exception of fear-avoidance beliefs. Cluster 2 (58.8%) was characterized by relatively elevated thought suppression, catastrophizing, and fear-avoidance beliefs, but lower pain self-efficacy, depression, anxiety, and stress. Cluster 3 (17.7%) had the highest scores across cognitive and affective questionnaires. Cluster 1 reported significantly lower pain intensity and bothersomeness than other clusters. Disability, stressful life events, and low back region perceptual distortion increased progressively from cluster 1 to cluster 3, whereas mindfulness progressively decreased. Clusters 2 and 3 had more people with an increase in pain following repeated forward and backward spinal bending, and more people with increasing pain following bending, than cluster 1. Cluster 3 had significantly greater lumbar pressure pain sensitivity, more undiagnosed comorbid symptoms, and more widespread pain than other clusters. Discussion: Clinical implications relating to presentations of each cluster are postulated.
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