Calibration and validation of reservoir models: the importance of high resolution, quantitative outcrop analogues
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Rapidly developing methods of digital acquisition, visualization and analysis allow highly detailed outcrop models to be constructed, and used as analogues to provide quantitative information about sedimentological and structural architectures from reservoir to subseismic scales of observation. Terrestrial laser-scanning (lidar) and high precision Real-Time Kinematic GPS are key survey technologies for data acquisition. 3D visualization facilities are used when analysing the outcrop data. Analysis of laser-scan data involves picking of the point-cloud to derive interpolated stratigraphic and structural surfaces. The resultant data can be used as input for object-based models, or can be cellularized and upscaled for use in grid-based reservoir modelling. Outcrop data can also be used to calibrate numerical models of geological processes such as the development and growth of folds, and the initiation and propagation of fractures.
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